National Groundwater Awareness Week: 10 Facts About Groundwater and Testing
从3月7 - 13, 2021 we celebrate National Groundwater Awareness Week to advocate for the protection and safety of groundwater. Water is one of the most precious natural resources. 阅读更多来新黄金城为什么!
#1 Approximately 164 million rely on groundwater for drinking water
在美国, about half of the population (approximately 164 million) relies on groundwater for drinking water, from both private and public sources. This accounts for 26% of all fresh water used for all purposes in the US, the remainder being used for irrigation, 工业冷却, 等.
#2 Irrigation is the biggest user in the US
Groundwater helps feed the world; irrigation is the biggest user in the US, with about 53 billion gallons consumed daily.
#3 Nitrates, 金属, volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, 和杀虫剂
The most common pollutants found in groundwater are nitrates, 金属, volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, 和杀虫剂.
#4 Private well water should be tested a minimum of once per year
Private well water should be tested a minimum of once per year. Drinking water supplies obtained from shallow wells and surface water sources should be tested more frequently (i.e. seasonally), as they are more vulnerable to contamination. The USEPA does not regulate private drinking water wells, and testing requirements for those may vary by state and locality. 根据美国地质调查局, more than 43 million people rely on private wells as their source of drinking water!
#5 EPA Issued the Ground Water Rule (GWR) in 2006
EPA issued the Ground Water Rule (GWR) in 2006 to improve drinking water quality and provide protection from disease-causing microorganisms. It applies to public water systems that use groundwater as a source of drinking water.
#6 Ground Water Rule basic requirements
The basic requirements of the Ground Water Rule include:
#7 Phase II 环境 Site Assessment
Groundwater and soil testing are often performed as part of a Phase II 环境 Site Assessment.
#8 Common sources of groundwater contamination
Common sources of groundwater contamination are leaking above and underground storage tanks, 垃圾系统, uncontrolled hazardous waste disposal, 垃圾填埋场, 化学和道路用盐, and atmospheric contaminant deposition that enter surface water and stormwater runoff.
#9 In situ and ex situ groundwater remediation
If your groundwater is contaminated, there are two types of groundwater remediation:
- In situ (in-place): contaminated water is treated underground within the groundwater zone without having to remove the groundwater for aboveground treatment.
- Ex situ (off-site): contaminated water is removed from the ground and treated aboveground either on- or off-site.
Groundwater can be treated in numerous ways, including in situ methodologies with as injection technologies (e.g., 化学氧化, air sparging) or ex-situ methods such as pump and treat that may incorporate air stripping, 过滤/吸附, 和/或热系统. Complex treatment sites may employ a combination of these approaches.
Apex Associated Press (顶点美联社) represents contributions from various authors within the Apex professional community.
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